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中国驻英国大使刘晓明在诺丁汉大学的演讲

中国是促进世界繁荣的积极力量
——中国驻英国大使刘晓明在诺丁汉大学的演讲
2010 年6月28日
China is a Positive Force for World Prosperity
Speech by H.E. Ambassador Liu Xiaoming At the University of Nottingham
28th June 2010

戴维·格林纳威校长,
老师和同学们,
女士们,先生们:
Professor David Greenaway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Nottingham,
Faculty members and students,
Ladies and Gentlemen,


很高兴首次来到诺丁汉市和诺丁汉大学访问。诺丁汉大学被誉为英国环境最优美的大学之一,我刚才走入校园,确实感觉风景如画。
I am delighted to be on my first visit to the City of Nottingham and your picturesque university, which lives up to its reputation as one of the most beautiful campuses in the UK.
最近英国和中国正同时热映一部电影——《罗宾汉》,据说,这位劫富济贫的绿林好汉当年就活跃在诺丁汉郊外的舍伍德森林里。许多中国观众都被 电影中的旖旎自然风光和浓郁英伦文化所陶醉。我想,你们听了这个消息会很高兴,因为来英国的中国游客数量又要增加了,来诺丁汉大学读书的中国学生也会更多 了。
The recent film Robin Hood has been a big hit with audiences both in China and here in the UK. The story as I am sure you know, is about a man who robbed from the rich to give to the poor, while living in Sherwood Forest on the outskirts of Nottingham. But it has been as much about the stunning natural beauty and rich British culture depicted in the film, which has fascinated a lot of Chinese viewers. I believe this is great news for you, as Nottingham should expect to receive more visitors from China, and University of Nottingham will be home to more Chinese Students.
创建于1881年的诺丁汉大学,是英国排名前十的高等学府。2003年,诺丁汉大学同时产生了两位诺贝尔奖获得者,一时传为佳话。诺丁汉大 学的校训是“城市建于智慧”(A City is Built on Wisdom.)。的确,一流大学是杰出城市的坚强后盾,既作为经济增长的发动机,又充当城市的思想库。这不由得使我想起正在举办的上海世博会的主题—— 城市让生活更美好(Better city, better life.)。两者相映成趣。
Founded in 1881, the University of Nottingham is amongst the top 10 institutions of higher learning in the UK. People won’t forget that in 2003 alone, two Nobel Prize winners were Nottingham graduates.
诺丁汉大学不仅以深厚学术研究著称,还以学校的国际化闻名,特别是与中国具有很密切的联系和合作。目前诺丁汉大学本部的中国学生超过 1300名;创建于2004年的诺丁汉大学中国校区,即宁波诺丁汉大学是中国第一家引进世界优质高教资源的中外合作大学;诺丁汉大学的当代中国研究中心在 欧洲处于领先水平;诺丁汉大学与复旦大学合办的孔子学院持续发展。我知道,你们都担心我忘了还有最重要的一项,那就是你们来自中国的名誉校长——杨福家教 授。
Apart from its intellectual excellence, the University of Nottingham is also famous in China for its close ties and cooperation with my country. Over 1,300 Chinese students currently studying at its UK campuses. Even more importantly, with the setting up of the Ningbo campus in 2004, Nottingham became the first foreign university to establish an independent campus in China. There are other factors as well. The School of Contemporary Chinese Studies is a leading institution of China studies in Britain. The Confucius Institute jointly run by the University of Nottingham and Fudan University has been doing well. All this has been achieved through the hard work of many, not least your Chancellor – Professor Yang Fujia.
今天我演讲的主题是中国在世界经济中的作用。这是格林纳威校长给我出的题目。这个题目,如果在30多年前被提出,可能属于一个“冷门”话 题。但在今天,这是我们必须认识、思考的重大现实问题,因为中国与世界经济已是风雨同舟,兴衰与共。我认为,中国对世界经济的作用主要体现在以下四个方 面:
I have been asked to talk about China’s role in the world economy today, a topic that would be unimaginable 30 years ago. But China is now an integral part of the world economy:
第一,中国是世界经济和贸易增长的引擎。改革开放32年来,中国的GDP总量由1978年的2600多亿美元增加到去年的4.9万亿美元, 实现了年均10%左右的增长,相应地,中国对世界经济的贡献率也大幅提升。1978年,中国对世界经济增长的拉动为0.1个百分点,贡献率为2.3%;到 国际金融危机前的2007年,中国对世界经济增长的拉动已提高到0.7个百分点,贡献率上升到19.2%,位居世界第一。2008年和2009年,由于很 多发达国家经济陷入衰退或低增长,而中国经济分别保持增长9%和8.7%,中国对世界经济增长的贡献率更是大幅提高。根据世界银行副行长林毅夫先生的预 测,2010年估计全球经济增长2.7%,假定中国经济继续增长8%,那么在2.7%的增长当中,中国的贡献率将进一步提升到30%。
Firstly, China has become an important driver for the world economy and trade. Over the 32 years of reform and opening-up, China’s GDP has grown from 260 billion US dollars in 1978 to 4.9 trillion, an average annual growth rate of about 10%. And as its GDP grows, so China’s contribution to the world economy also increases. In 1978, China contributed 0.1 percentage point or 2.3% to global economic growth, but by 2007, these figures had jumped to 0.7 percentage point and 19.2%, making China the biggest contributor among all countries. In 2008 and 2009 when many developed countries slid into recession, China continued to grow at 9% and 8.7% respectively, contributing still more to the world economy. And as World Bank Vice President Justin Yifu Lin has estimated, the global economy will grow by 2.7% this year and 30% of that growth will come from China if it sustains an 8% growth rate.
在全球化的大背景下,国际贸易是全球经济增长的助推器。1978年,中国进出口贸易总额为206亿美元,占世界贸易比重仅为 0.8%;2008年,中国对外贸易额达到2.56万亿美元,占世界贸易的7.9%。2009年,由于受国际金融危机的影响,中国对外贸易额下降至2.2 万亿美元,但在世界贸易总额中的比重,却由2008年的7.9%提高到9%,成为世界第一大出口国和第二大进口国,对外贸易总量居世界第二。世贸组织发布 的《2009年世界贸易报告》认为,中国正成为全球贸易增长的引擎。
In 1978, China’s trade was 20.6 billion US dollars or 0.8% of the world’s total, these figures had grown in 2008 to 2.56 trillion and 7.9%. However, as a result of the financial crisis, China’s trade dropped to 2.2 trillion US dollars in 2009, although accounting for 9% of that year’s world total, making China the world’s largest exporter and second largest importer. According to the World Trade Report 2009 by the World Trade Organisation (WTO), China is becoming the engine driving trade growth globally.
第二、中国是危机时刻负责任、可信赖的伙伴。1997年,亚洲金融危机爆发,当时,全世界几乎异口同声地宣称:人民币应当贬值,否则中国经 济将面临灭顶之灾。然而,中国政府经过多方面权衡,本着高度负责的态度,从维护本地区稳定和发展的大局出发,做出人民币不贬值的决定,承受了巨大压力,付 出了很大代价。此举对亚洲乃至世界金融、经济的稳定和发展起到了重要作用。
Secondly, China is a reliable partner in times of crisis. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, many were expecting the RMB to depreciate or the Chinese economy would be ruined. China decided to keep the value of the RMB as it was. This decision put China under huge pressure for which it has paid a price. It did however help to uphold the financial and economic stability and development in Asia and the world.
2008年,国际金融危机爆发,中国首先努力做好自己的事情,及时调整了宏观经济政策,果断实施积极的财政政策和适度宽松的货币政策,出台 了旨在进一步扩大内需、促进经济增长的一揽子计划。同时,中国积极倡导国际合作,提出了国际社会携手应对、共克时艰的理念;加强与主要经济体宏观经济政策 的协调;积极参与二十国集团峰会进程;坚决反对贸易保护主义,维护世界自由贸易体系;积极加强双边、区域和多边经贸合作,组织大型采购团赴海外采购;中国 还承诺购买不超过500亿美元的国际货币基金组织债券。中国在国际社会应对金融危机的过程中,扮演了重要角色,发挥了建设性作用。
In 2008 when the international financial crisis broke out, China made timely adjustments to its macroeconomic policy, quickly putting together a stimulus package aimed at expanding domestic demands and stimulating economic growth. China also called on countries to weather the storm together. We strengthened macro policy coordination with other leading economies and took an active part in the G20 summits. China called for free trade and intensified business cooperation bilaterally, regionally and multilaterally, through sending buying missions overseas, among others. China also committed itself to buying up to 50 billion US dollars in International Monetary Fund (IMF) bonds.
不久前,欧洲一些国家出现主权债务危机,中国坚定支持欧元区和国际货币基金组织联手启动救援机制。中国没有抛售欧元资产,给欧元以巨大支 持。就在本月,中国国务院副总理张德江访问了希腊,两国企业签署了14项商业协议,包括中方在希腊建造干散货船,开发宾馆和购物中心,建设机场、物流中心 和海洋主题公园,进口希腊生产的橄榄油等,协议总额近100亿欧元。这对希腊来说无疑是雪中送炭。同样是本月,中国与冰岛签署了金额为35亿元人民币(约 合5亿美元)的双边本币互换协议,这既有利于中冰双边贸易,也有助于冰岛经济复苏。
During the recent European sovereign debt crisis, China stood firmly behind the Euro Zone and the IMF as they worked together to launch an aid plan, by not selling its Euro assets. And during a recent visit to Greece, the Chinese Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang took with him 14 much-needed agreements worth nearly 10 billion Euros. These ranged from the construction of bulk cargo ships, airport facilities, a logistic hub and an ocean park, to the purchase of olive oil. This month has also seen China signing a bilateral currency swap agreement with Iceland, worth about 500 million US dollars to facilitate bilateral trade and to help with the economic recovery of Iceland.
就在一周前,鉴于当前全球经济逐步复苏,中国经济回升向好的基础进一步巩固及经济运行趋于平稳,中国宣布进一步推进人民币汇率形成机制改 革,增强人民币汇率弹性。此举受到国际社会的普遍欢迎。
Just a week ago, China announced further steps to reform the RMB exchange rate regime and enhance the RMB’s exchange rate flexibility, as the world economy improves and China’s economic recovery is on a solid footing.
第三,中国是国际金融体系改革的坚定推动者。国际金融危机的爆发和蔓延,充分暴露了国际金融体系的诸多缺陷与弊端,同时也强有力地表明了国 际金融体系改革的必要性和紧迫性。中国支持二十国集团领导人峰会成为国际社会共同应对国际金融危机、加强国际经济合作的重要和有效平台。在2008年美国 华盛顿召开的二十国集团领导人首次金融峰会上,中国国家主席胡锦涛先生提出坚持全面性、均衡性、渐进性、实效性的原则,推动国际金融体系改革朝着公平、公 正、包容、有序方向发展,营造有利于世界经济健康发展的制度环境。此后,无论是伦敦峰会、匹兹堡峰会还是上周末举行的多伦多峰会,中国都坚定地主张加快国 际金融机构改革,加强国际金融监管。
Thirdly, China stands for the reform of the international financial system. The recent financial crisis has laid bare many deficiencies in the international financial system. China supports the G20 summit’s role as a major and effective platform for international efforts to tackle the financial crisis and step up economic cooperation. President Hu Jintao proposed, at the Washington G20 summit in 2008, an all-round, balanced, incremental and result-oriented approach to move the reforms in a more equitable, inclusive and well-managed direction. At more recent summits in London, Pittsburgh and last weekend in Toronto, China called for the speeding up of reform to the international financial institutions (IFIs) and for tougher financial regulation.
中国通过“金砖四国”领导人会谈、中非合作论坛等平台,增进新兴市场国家和发展中国家在改革国际金融体系问题上的共识,推动提高发展中国家 在国际金融机构中的代表性和发言权,共同促进国际金融体系的变革。中国积极主张完善国际货币体系,健全储备货币发行调控机制,保持主要储备货币汇率相对稳 定,促进国际货币体系多元化、合理化。
China has worked for more agreement among the emerging markets and developing countries on the reforms to increase the representation for developing countries in the IFI’s. China calls for the improvement of the international monetary system and the reserve currency issuing regime, along with the stabilisation of the exchange rates of major reserve currencies.
第四、中国是绿色和低碳经济的带头实践者。金融危机后,世界经济正在寻找新的增长点,面临新的转型,新能源革命和低碳经济是一个重要趋势。 中国政府高度重视发展绿色经济与应对气候变化,我们从自身实际出发,借鉴国际经验,把可持续发展作为国家战略,把建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会作为重大 任务,把节能减排作为国民经济和社会发展的约束性指标,公布了应对气候变化的国家方案。中国政府向国际社会庄重承诺:到2020年中国单位国内生产总值二 氧化碳排放比2005年下降40%—45%。中国正大力发展水电、核电、太阳能和风电,不少项目的规模已经处于世界第一。我们的目标是到2020年,非化 石能源占一次能源消费的比重要达到15%左右,这一数字与欧盟20%的目标相接近。中国也提出到2020年使森林面积比2005年增加4000万公顷,这 是英国的国土面积的1.6倍。
Fourth, China leads international efforts for a green and low-carbon economy. The Chinese government places high importance on growing the green economy and addressing climate challenges based on our national conditions and also drawing upon international experience on sustainable development. We have given priority to building an energy-conserving and environment-friendly society, and we are making energy conservation and emissions control part of our mandatory economic and social development targets. We are pledging as part of our National Climate Change Program, to cut energy intensity by 40-45% by 2020 against the 2005 level. China is also developing its hydro, nuclear, solar and wind power generation schemes in a massive scale. And we expect to increase the proportion of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 15% by 2020. We have also proposed to increase forest coverage by 40 million hectares or approximately 1.6 times the size of Britain by 2020 against 2005 levels.
综上所述,中国在世界经济的增长、稳定、改革和转型等方面,都发挥着不可或缺的作用,中国已成为促进世界繁荣的积极和重要力量。
当然,我们刚才计算中国的经济数字时,使用的都是总量,如果将这些数字除以中国13多亿的人口,就会得到另一组截然不同的数字。比 如,2009年中国人均GDP仅有3600多美元,排名居世界第100位,属于中低收入国家;中国人均贸易额只有1600美元左右,低于世界平均3700 多美元,仅为英国的1/5。此外,中国13亿人口中,仍有7亿多农村人口;按照联合国每人每天1美元的贫困线标准,中国仍有1.5亿贫困人口;中国城乡、 地区发展也很不平衡,东部和西部的人均GDP差距在3倍以上。这就是中国的基本国情,中国既大又小,既强又弱;中国正在发展,但任重而道远。这如同一枚硬 币的两个面。
Any understanding of the nature of China’s economic development would not be complete without a look at the other side of the story. All the economic figures I have outlined will be much less impressive once they are divided by our 1.3 billion population. For instance, China’s per capita GDP in 2009 was only 3,600 US dollars, ranking behind Albania to be the 100th in the world; its per capita trade value stood at 1,600 US dollars, much lower than the world average of 3,700 US dollars, and one fifth of that of Britain. Out of the 1.3 billion people in China, 700 million live in the poor countryside; with 150 million living under 1 dollar a day, the poverty line set by UN. China also faces the huge challenge of serious income disparity between regions and between urban and rural areas. This is the fact we face: China is both big and small, strong and weak; it is developing and this process is going to be long and tortuous.
女士们、先生们,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
中国的发展,有利于世界,也有利于英国。近年来,在中英两国政府的积极推动下,双边经贸合作不断深化,成效显著。英国目前是中国在欧盟内第 三大贸易伙伴、最大的投资来源地和主要投资目的国,中国是英国在欧盟外第二大贸易伙伴。尽管2009年中英双边贸易受到金融危机影响有所下滑,但今年1至 4月,中英货物贸易恢复强劲增长,贸易总额达138.1亿美元,同比增长29.8%。
China’s development is in the interest of the UK. Thanks to the efforts of both our sides, our business cooperation has made much progress in recent years. The UK is China’s third largest trade partner, the largest investor and a leading investment destination in the EU. China is the second largest trade partner of the UK outside the EU and despite a drop in our trade in 2009 due to the crisis, trade in goods has quickly picked up in the first 4 months of this year, hitting 13.81 billion US dollars, an increase of 29.8%.
我此次来英格兰中部和西北部地区考察,行程总共800多英里,主要目的是实地了解英国的经济特色和产业优势,特别是了解英国的高端制造业和 新能源技术。通过考察,我深刻认识到中英两国经济存在很大的互补性,双方合作空间巨大,前景广阔。我认为,进一步发展中英经贸合作,需要从以下三个方面着 手:
My trip to the English midlands and north western has taken me on an 800-mile journey, and has helped me to understand the distinct features and strong sectors of the British economy, in particular high-end manufacturing and new energy technologies. My impression is that our economies have a lot to offer each other and our cooperation can flourish. To achieve this, I would suggest:
一是要深挖合作潜力。双方要在大项目上寻求突破,比如,中国正在开展“大飞机”项目,英国要修建纵贯南北的高速铁路,双方可探讨合作的可能 性。双方还要在前沿领域打造亮点。英国是低碳经济的最早倡导者,拥有较多成熟的新能源技术和环境技术,但自身市场容量有限。中国正在转变经济增长方式,走 节能减排新兴工业化道路,建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会,对技术的需求巨大。中方欢迎英方将高新技术投入到中国的巨大市场,实现科技成果的产业化和商业 化。
Firstly, further tap the potential for cooperation. Both sides need to identify major projects where cooperation may be possible. For example, China is working on the “Jumbo Jet” project while the UK is planning to build a high-speed railway linking its north and south. While the UK is a frontrunner as a low-carbon economy which possesses mature new energy and environmental technologies, its market is not big enough. China is embarking on a new way of industrialisation that conserves energy and properly controls emission. The vast Chinese market is exactly where the UK can put its scientific achievements and knowledge to good use.
二是要扩大合作主体。双方不仅要着眼大企业、大项目,更要大力促进中小企业合作。中、英中小企业数量均占企业总量的99%以上,对GDP的 贡献都在一半以上。英国的中小企业生产效率高,产品科技含量大,设计创新能力强,组织管理工作出色。中国中小企业多为劳动密集型企业,市场反应灵敏,生产 供货速度快,近年一些科技型中小企业亦正在兴起。中英两国政府部门和行业组织应加大努力,帮助两国中小企业克服语言、信息和人才障碍,更好地实现双方能力 和需求的顺利对接、技术和生产的有效配合。
Secondly, expand cooperation at all levels. With SME’s accounting for over 99% of all businesses in China and Britain, and contributing over half of our total GDP, they are therefore key to the success of future growth between us. British SMEs being generally well-run and known for their productivity, advanced technology and innovation, while in recent years we have seen a rise in the number of technology-based SMEs in China. These tend to be labour-intensive, but highly responsive to market demands. The two sides need to work harder to help and support SMEs, by removing obstacles such as language and lack of information, to translate our mutual needs into effective cooperation.
三是要改善合作环境。要加强宣传推介,特别是利用上海世博会、伦敦奥运会这样的重大平台,介绍自己的产业优势。要创造有利于技术输出的市场 环境,特别是加大知识产权保护,使将技术视为命根子的企业放心地输出最新、最好的技术,并获得满意的回报。要加大金融支持双边贸易的力度,特别是加大信贷 支持力度,拓宽企业直接融资渠道。
Thirdly, improve the environment for cooperation. We need to foster a market environment that facilitates technology transfer through better protection for Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), to ensure companies are confident when sharing their latest and best technologies. We also need to provide better financial services to support trade, especially by lending more and providing businesses with more financial support.
女士们、先生们,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
我高兴地看到,英国新政府致力于发展“更紧密的英中关系”,两国高层交往密切,互动频繁。就在前天,胡锦涛主席和卡梅伦首相在G20多伦多 峰会期间进行了富有成果的会晤。胡主席在会晤中指出,“中方把英国看作重要的国际合作伙伴。中英在推动世界经济全面复苏、应对全球性挑战方面具有广泛共同 利益。”两国领导人达成的这些重要共识,对推动下阶段中英关系的发展具有重要意义。同时,上海世博会极大地促进了两国经贸、金融和文化等各领域合作,增进 了两国人民之间的了解。可以说,新时期中英关系起步良好,正在等待我们加大油门。
I am happy to see that the new British government is committed to closer engagement with China. President Hu and Prime Minster Cameron had a good meeting in Toronto the day before yesterday, coming to agreement on a number of important issues, which is crucial to continued development of our relations. Just as President Hu stressed in his meeting with Prime Minister Cameron that “China sees the UK as an important global partner”, “the two countries share extensive common interests in facilitating global recovery and meeting global challenges. This requires us to take a long-term and strategic view when making plans for our relations, so that we can ensure that our cooperation will better serve our people.” The ongoing World Expo has significantly boosted our business, financial and cultural cooperation and has enhanced the mutual understanding of our peoples. It is fair to say that our relationships are off to a good start, all we need to do now is to step on the accelerator.
狄更斯在其名著《远大前程》里写道,“我发现了一个真理,机会不会掉到我们身上,我们必须去寻找机会” (I find the truth to be that an opening won’t come to one, but one must go to it.)。让我们共同努力,寻找机会,抓住机遇,推动两国经贸合作不断深入,促进中英关系不断发展。
As Charles Dickens wrote in Great Expectations, “I find the truth to be that an opening won’t come to one, but one must go to it”. Let us work together, find the openings, seize the opportunities and move forward our business cooperation, bilateral relations and friendship.
谢谢!
Thank you.

本文固定链接: http://www.imdale.com/liu-xiaoming-chinese-ambassador-to-britain-speaking-at-the-university-of-nottingham/ | Dale | Dale's Blog

该日志由 Dale 于2010年07月13日发表在 随笔 Diary 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
原创文章转载请注明: 中国驻英国大使刘晓明在诺丁汉大学的演讲 | Dale | Dale's Blog
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中国驻英国大使刘晓明在诺丁汉大学的演讲:目前有3 条留言

  1. 板凳
    雷格:

    说的比较中肯,比某些媒体喉舌强多了

    2012-01-07 下午 8:01 [回复]
    • Dale:

      推荐你看一篇文章,是对比大陆,台湾,美国元首新年致辞。。。

      2012-01-07 下午 8:41 [回复]
  2. 内容不错!

    2010-07-31 下午 10:51 [回复]

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